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更新:2018-12-05 10:33:47文/王华老师 来源:爱扬教育 发布:2018-12-05

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1. 虚拟条件句

虚拟条件句,顾名思义,是在一个虚拟假想的条件下,来描述说话人想象的、非真实的情景,这些情景是不可能发生的,与客观事实相反的。我们可以将对现在、过去、将来这三种情况进行虚拟的情况进行分析。

1.l 对现在/一般事实进行虚拟

[例句] If I could rearrange the alphabet, I’d put U and I together.

[解析] 字母表排序是固定不变的,字母 U 和 I 不在一起,这里要表达与这一事实相反的情形,所以用虚拟语气。

[译文] 如果能重新把字母表排序,我一定会把 U 和 I 这两个字母放在一起。

[例句] I have often thought it would be a blessing if each human being were stricken blind and deaf for a few days at some time during his early adult life. Darkness would make him more apPciative of sight;Silence would teach him the joys of sound.

[解析] 这是 Helen Keller(1880~1968)一篇文章中的句子。表达一个与一般事实相反的假设情形。

[译文] 我常常想:如果每一个人在生活早期都要遭受几天眼睛失明、耳朵失聪,那可能是一种福气!黑暗会使他更加珍惜视觉;寂静无声能教会他欣赏声音的美妙。

2019MTI考研英语语法常考语法总结

1.2 对过去事实进行虚拟

真题再现

[例句] It would have been just as satisfactory if I had stayed at home. I learned nothing in class.

[译文] 如果我待在家里不去上课还更好些,因为我在课堂上什么也学不到。

[例句] Tourism is an odd thing. You fly off to a strange land,eagerly abandoning all the comforts of home, and then expend time and money in a futile attempt to recapture the comforts that you wouldn’t have lost if you hadn’t left home in the first place.

[解析] 这是表示对过去事实的虚拟。

[例句] If you hadn’t contacted Jerry Brown until recently, you’ d think the photograph on the right was strange.(1993 年语法)

[译文] 要是你直到最近才和 Jerry 联系的话,你一定会认为右边这张照片很奇怪。

7.1.3 对将来进行虚拟

[例句] Sometimes I have thought it would be an excellent rule to live each day as if we should die tomorrow. Such an attitude would emphasize sharply the values of life.

[解析] 我们看到,从句表将来虚拟,用了情态动词 should,也可以用 were to do。

[译文] 我时常会想,如果我们能以明天就要告别这个世界的态度来度过每一天的话,那一定是极好的,这种心态会让每一个人珍视生命的价值。

7.1.4 倒装虚拟句

当 if 条件句中有助动词 should, had 或 were 时,可以省去 if,而将 should,had 或 were 置于句首,从而构成倒装虚拟句,意义不变。

真题再现

[ 例 句 ] For example: they do not compensate for gross social inequality , and thus do not tell how able an underprivileged youngster might have been had he grown up under more favorable circumstances.

[解析] 这是对过去的虚拟。倒装结构 had he grown 相当于 if he had grown。

[译文] 例如,测试并不能弥补明显的社会不公;因此,它们不能说明一个物质条件差的年轻人,如果在较好的环境中成长的话,会有多大才干。